BRCA1 and BRCA2 refer to two particular genes that are responsible for the repair of DNA mutations. BRCA1 produces a protein known as “Breast Cancer Type 1 Susceptibility Protein” Expressions of BRCA1 within the cells of breast and other tissue help to repair damaged DNA. If a repair is not possible then the gene helps to kill the cells before abnormal growth occurs.
Mutations of BRCA1 and BRCA2
Often gene mutations in BRCA1 involve the protein that helps repair DNA. Due to mutation, BRCA1 is unable to repair damaged DNA thus resulting in mutations to other genes. These mutations may then allow for damaged cells to grow and divide rapidly, forming a tumor. Hundreds of different mutations of BRCA1 have been identified, many of them associated with an increased risk of breast and ovarian cancer. BRCA 2 mutations also carry an increased risk of developing both ovarian cancer and breast cancer.