Artemisinin For Cancer
Artemisinin is the active medicinal ingredient isolated form the Artemisia Annua plant. This plant, which is better known as sweet wormwood has been used in Asia by the Chinese for thousands of years. The Chinese name for this herb is Qinghao.
Recently, Artemisinin for cancer treatment has been under early research and testing for treatment of cancer, primarily by researchers at the University of Washington. According to their studies, Artemisinin is cytotoxic to 55 different types of cancers, most notably leukemia, breast cancer, colon cancer, prostate cancer, lung cancer and fibrosarcomas.
It is believed that the anti-cancer properties of Artemisinin for cancer treatment are due to it having a peroxide lactone group in its structure. It seems that when the peroxide comes into contact with high iron concentrations (common in cancerous cells), the molecule becomes unstable and releases reactive oxygen species. It has been shown to reduce angiogenesis and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in some tissue cultures. In studies, it was also shown that Artemisinin was able to destroy tumors that were previously resistant to chemotherapy.
Artemisinin For Cancer Treatment
At Sunridge Medical, our highly-trained physicians are experts in providing an integrated approach to the mechanisms of action in the treatment of cancer and chronic disease. Our treatment plans are individualized and involve both traditional and alternative medicines. The physicians at Sunridge Medical have found that symptoms frequently can be improved and even reversed with our natural treatments. We take a holistic approach to patient care and strive not only treat the disease, but also alleviate symptoms, increase quality of life and, most importantly, address the underlying cause of disease.
References on Artemisinin For Cancer
Read more about Artemisinin for Cancer Treatment in the alternative cancer research information.
Artemisinins as a Novel Anti-Cancer Therapy
Augustin Y, Staines HM, Krishna S. Artemisinins as a novel anti-cancer therapy: Targeting a global cancer pandemic through drug repurposing. Pharmacol Ther. 2020 Dec;216:107706. doi: 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2020.107706. Epub 2020 Oct 16. PMID: 33075360; PMCID: PMC7564301. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7564301/ Artemisinins are a unique class of antimalarial drugs with significant potential for drug repurposing for a wide range of diseases including cancer. Cancer is a leading cause of death globally and the majority of cancer related deaths occur in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs) where conventional treatment options are often limited by financial cost.
Drug repurposing can significantly shorten new therapeutic discovery pathways, ensuring greater accessibility and affordability globally. Artemisinins have an excellent safety and tolerability profile as well as being affordable for deployment in Low and Middle Class Income Countries at around USD1 per daily dose. Robust, well designed clinical trials of artemisinin drug repurposing are indicated for a variety of different cancers and treatment settings.
Artemisinin Mediates Its Tumor-Suppressive Activity
Nandi D, Cheema PS, Singal A, Bharti H, Nag A. Artemisinin Mediates Its Tumor-Suppressive Activity in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Through Targeted Inhibition of FoxM1. Front Oncol. 2021 Nov 24;11:751271. doi: 10.3389/fonc.2021.751271. PMID: 34900697; PMCID: PMC8652299. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8652299/ The aberrant up-regulation of the oncogenic transcription factor Forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) is associated with tumor development, progression and metastasis in a myriad of carcinomas, thus establishing it as an attractive target for anticancer drug development.
FoxM1 overexpression in hepatocellular carcinoma is reflective of tumor aggressiveness and recurrence, poor prognosis and low survival in patients. In our study, we have identified the antimalarial natural product, Artemisinin, to efficiently curb FoxM1 expression and activity in hepatic cancer cells, thereby exhibiting potential anticancer efficacy. Here, we demonstrated that Artemisinin considerably mitigates FoxM1 transcriptional activity by disrupting its interaction with the promoter region of its downstream targets, thereby suppressing the expression of numerous oncogenic drivers. Augmented level of FoxM1 is implicated in drug resistance of cancer cells, including hepatic tumor cells.
Notably, FoxM1 overexpression rendered HCC cells poorly responsive to Artemisinin-mediated cytotoxicity while FoxM1 depletion in resistant liver cancer cells sensitized them to Artemisinin treatment, manifested in lower proliferative and growth index, drop in invasive potential and repressed expression of EMT markers with a concomitantly increased apoptosis.
Moreover, artemisinin and its derivatives, when used in combination with Thiostrepton, an established FoxM1 inhibitor, markedly reduced anchorage-independent growth and displayed more pronounced death in liver cancer cells. We found this effect to be evident even in the resistant HCC cells, thereby putting forth a novel combination therapy for resistant cancer patients.
“Altogether, our findings provide insight into the pivotal involvement of FoxM1 in the tumor suppressive activities of Artemisinin and shed light on the potential application of Artemisinin for improved therapeutic response, especially in resistant hepatic malignancies. Considering that Artemisinin compounds are in current clinical use with favorable safety profiles, the results from our study will potentiate its utility in juxtaposition with established FoxM1 inhibitors, promoting maximal therapeutic efficacy with minimal adverse effects in liver cancer patients.”
Anticancer Effect of AntiMalarial Artemisinin Compounds
Das AK. Anticancer Effect of AntiMalarial Artemisinin Compounds. Ann Med Health Sci Res. 2015 Mar-Apr;5(2):93-102. doi: 10.4103/2141-9248.153609. PMID: 25861527; PMCID: PMC4389338.
The anti-malarial drug artemisinin has shown anticancer activity in vitro and animal experiments, but experience in human cancer is scarce. However, the ability of artemisinins to kill cancer cells through a variety of molecular mechanisms has been explored. A PubMed search of about 127 papers on anti-cancer effects of antimalarials has revealed that this class of drug, including other antimalarials, have several biological characteristics that include anticancer properties.
Experimental evidences suggest that artemisinin compounds may be a therapeutic alternative in highly aggressive cancers with rapid dissemination, without developing drug resistance. They also exhibit synergism with other anticancer drugs with no increased toxicity toward normal cells. It has been found that semisynthetic artemisinin derivatives have much higher antitumor activity than their monomeric counterparts via mechanisms like apoptosis, arrest of cell cycle at G0/G1, and oxidative stress.
The exact mechanism of activation and molecular basis of these anticancer effects are not fully elucidated. Artemisinins seem to regulate key factors such as nuclear factor-kappa B, survivin, NOXA, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, and BMI-1, involving multiple pathways that may affect drug response, drug interactions, drug resistance, and associated parameters upon normal cells.
Newer synthetic artemisinins have been developed showing substantial antineoplastic activity, but there is still limited information regarding the mode of action of these synthetic compounds. In view of the emerging data, specific interactions with established chemotherapy need to be further investigated in different cancer cells and their phenotypes and validated further using different semisynthetic and synthetic artemisinin derivatives.
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