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How Does Human Growth Hormone Work?

Human Growth Hormone Replacement at Sunridge MedicalHuman Growth hormone is often referred to as hGH, and is made in the body by the pituitary gland. This gland is located in the brain and secretes growth hormones. The secretions are triggered when the pituitary gland receives messages from the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus regulates metabolic processes and other activities in the body. 

As the name of the hormone indicates it is responsible for growth which aids in processing fat for energy and protein important in tissue maintenance. Human growth hormone levels vary based on activity. Walking, running, and other physical activities along with sleep cause growth hormone to increase its levels naturally.

For a variety of reasons, adults can make too little hGH. Lack of production can occur because of high blood sugar levels and stress that impact the body’s natural ability to produce this hormone. Adults with low hGH often struggle with weight and obesity. Those patients have a higher risk of heart disease and stroke, depression, anxiety, brittle bones, weak muscles, and cognitive issues. Hormone deficiency may occur in both men and women.

Alternative Treatment for Human Growth Hormone:

A physician at Sunridge Medical may prescribe hGH hormone injections. The hormone is designed to copy natural hGH in the patient’s body. Depending on the severity of the hGH deficiency it may be delivered daily, several times a week or on a weekly basis.

Patients receiving the proper amount of growth hormone may experience a leveling of blood sugar. Diabetic patients require frequent physician visits and at-home glucose monitoring.

Risks and side effects of human growth hormone injections initially occur in some patients. They may experience joint and muscle pain, headaches, and swelling of hands and feet. As the dosage level is corrected, the side effects clear.
Some patients with certain diseases should not use hGH. The growth properties of the hormone may trigger activity in tumors and cancer.

Research of Human Growth Hormone:

Strobl JS, Thomas MJ. Human growth hormone. Pharmacology Review 1994 Mar;46(1):1-34. PMID: 8190748. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8190748/
Human growth hormone

The study of human growth hormone is a little more than 100 years old. Growth hormone, first identified for its dramatic effect on longitudinal growth, is now known to exert generalized effects on protein, lipid, and carbohydrate metabolism. Additional roles for growth hormone in human physiology are likely to be discovered in the areas of sleep research and reproduction. 

Furthermore, there is some indication that growth hormone also may be involved in the regulation of immune function, mental well-being, and the aging process. Recombinant DNA technology has provided an abundant and safe, albeit expensive, supply of human growth hormone for human use, but the pharmacological properties of growth hormone are poor. Most growth hormone-deficient individuals exhibit a secretory defect rather than a primary defect in growth hormone production, however, and advances in our understanding of the neuroendocrine regulation of growth hormone secretion have established the basis for the use of drugs to stimulate release of endogenously synthesized growth hormone.  

This promises to be an important area for future drug development.

Correlation of Significantly Decreased Serum Circulating Mesencephalic Astrocyte-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Level With an Increased Risk of Future Cardiovascular Disease in Adult Patients With Growth Hormone Deficiency
 

Ren Z, Wang Y, Chen Q, Long J, Zhang R, Wu X, Qian W, Chen Y, Liu D, Ren W. Correlation of Significantly Decreased Serum Circulating Mesencephalic Astrocyte-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Level With an Increased Risk of Future Cardiovascular Disease in Adult Patients With Growth Hormone Deficiency.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2021 Jun 16;12:671126. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2021.671126. PMID: 34220710; PMCID: PMC8242342. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34220710/

Objective: Adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) is a rare chronic inflammatory disease caused by damage to the pituitary gland and is accompanied by disorders of multiple metabolic pathways. By examining the correlation between the serum mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) levels of AGHD patients and those of normal controls, we hope to elucidate the close relationship among MANF, lipid metabolism and insulin resistance in AGHD and discuss the potential therapeutic value of MANF.

Methods: This study included 101 AGHD patients and 100 healthy subjects matched for sex, age, height, and weight. Anthropometric parameters and biochemical indicators such as body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, serum MANF level, blood lipids and insulin level were measured. The above patients were also divided into several subgroups for correlation analysis based on indicators such as insulin resistance and BMI.

Results: The serum circulating MANF content of AGHD patients was significantly lower than that of the normal control group (5.235 (0.507-17.62) ng/ml (n=101) vs. 10.30 (1.84-16.65) ng/ml (n=100); p<0.0001), and circulating MANF levels were linearly correlated with HOMA-IR in the AGHD population (R=0.481, P=0.0041). 

When MANF was at pathological concentrations (lower than the mean circulating MANF of normal controls), the lowest concentration tertile (OR=21.429 p<0.0001) had a significantly higher disease odds ratio, Framingham risk score and 10-year risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease than the highest concentration tertile.

Conclusions: MANF has a significant correlation with insulin resistance in the AGHD state. There is a strong correlation with abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism in the obese AGHD population. MANF is also a good assessment factor for the risk of cardiovascular disease in AGHD patients and has excellent therapeutic potential.

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